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Abstract                 Volume:5  Issue-4  Year-2017          Original Research Articles


Online ISSN : 2347 - 3215
Issues : 12 per year
Publisher : Excellent Publishers
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General Features of Pteridophytes (Fern)
Teena Agrawal*, Priyanka Danai and Monika Yadav
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Banasthali Vidyapith, Rajasthan, India
*Corresponding author
Abstract:

Ferns are known to be the first type of vascular plants which are generally considered to be simpler than vascular plants that make seeds. Ferns were traditionally classified in the “Filices” but modern classifications assign them their own phylum i.e. division of the plant kingdom, as “Pteridophyta” or “Filicophyta”. Ferns are able to reproduce without using seeds and are seedless vascular plants. They range from very short, unimpressive house plants to larger, full grown trees. They are often used in landscaping and decoration but also occur naturally in a variety of environments. Ferns first appear in the fossil record 360 million years ago in the late Devonian period, but many of the current families and species did not appear until roughly 145 million ago in the early Cretaceous. The fern Osmunda claytoniana is a paramount example of evolutionary stasis. Paleontological evidence indicates it has remained unchanged, even at the level of fossilized nuclei and chromosomes, for at least 180 million years. During this era some fern like groups actually evolved seeds (the seed ferns) making up half of the fern like foliage in Carboniferous forests and much later gives rise to the flowering plants. Most of the ferns of the Carboniferous became extinct but some later evolved into our modern ferns. There are thousands of species in the world today.

Keywords: Ferns, Pteridophyta, Carboniferous, Filicophyta, Devonian period, Paleontological evidence.
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How to cite this article:

Teena Agrawal, Priyanka Danai and Monika Yadav. 2017. General Features of Pteridophytes (Fern).Int.J.Curr.Res.Aca.Rev. 5(4): 89-94
doi: https://doi.org/10.20546/ijcrar.2017.504.013